Simple profiling checks for running jobs on clusters

The goal of this short blog post is to share some simple tips on profiling your (to be) submitted jobs on high performance computing resources. Profiling your jobs can give you information about how efficiently you are using your computational resources, i.e., your CPUs and your allocated memory. Typically you would perform these checks on your experiment at a smaller scale, ensuring that everything is working as it should, before expanding to more tasks and CPUs.

Your first check is squeue typically paired with your user ID on a cluster. Here’s an example:

(base) [ah986@login02 project_dir]$ squeue -u ah986
             JOBID PARTITION     NAME      USER  ST       TIME  NODES NODELIST(REASON) 
           5688212    shared <job_name>    ah986  R       0:05      1 exp-4-55 

This tells me that my submitted job is utilizing 1 node in the shared partition of this cluster. If your cluster is using the SLURM scheduler, you can also use sacct which can display accounting data for all jobs you are currently running or have run in the past. There’s many pieces of information available with sacct, that you can specify using the --format flag. Here’s an example for the same job:

(base) [ah986@login02 project_dir]$ sacct --format=JobID,partition,state,time,start,end,elapsed,nnodes,ncpus,nodelist,AllocTRES%32 -j 5688212
       JobID  Partition      State  Timelimit               Start                 End    Elapsed   NNodes      NCPUS        NodeList                        AllocTRES 
------------ ---------- ---------- ---------- ------------------- ------------------- ---------- -------- ---------- --------------- -------------------------------- 
5688212          shared    RUNNING   20:00:00 2021-09-08T10:55:40             Unknown   00:19:47        1        100        exp-4-55 billing=360000,cpu=100,mem=200G+ 
5688212.bat+               RUNNING            2021-09-08T10:55:40             Unknown   00:19:47        1        100        exp-4-55          cpu=100,mem=200G,node=1 
5688212.0                  RUNNING            2021-09-08T10:55:40             Unknown   00:19:47        1        100        exp-4-55          cpu=100,mem=200G,node=1 

In this case I can see the number of nodes (1) and the number of cores (100) utilized by my job as well as the resources allocated to it (100 CPUs and 200G of memory on 1 node). This information is useful in cases where a task launches other tasks and you’d like to diagnose whether the correct number of cores is being used.

Another useful tool is seff, which is actually a wrapper around sacct and summarizes your job’s overall performance. It is a little unreliable while the job is still running, but after the job is finished you can run:

(base) [ah986@login02 project_dir]$ seff 5688212
Job ID: 5688212
Cluster: expanse
User/Group: ah986/pen110
State: COMPLETED (exit code 0)
Nodes: 1
Cores per node: 100
CPU Utilized: 1-01:59:46
CPU Efficiency: 68.16% of 1-14:08:20 core-walltime
Job Wall-clock time: 00:22:53
Memory Utilized: 38.25 GB
Memory Efficiency: 19.13% of 200.00 GB

The information here is very useful if you want to find out about how efficiently you’re using your resources. For this example I had 100 separate tasks I needed to perform and I requested 100 cores on 1 node and 200 GB of memory. These results tell me that my job completed in 23mins or so, the total time using the CPUs (CPU Utilized) was 01:59:46, and most importantly, the efficiency of my CPU use. CPU Efficiency is calculated “as the ratio of the actual core time from all cores divided by the number of cores requested divided by the run time”, in this case 68.16%. What this means it that I could be utilizing my cores more efficiently by allocating fewer cores to the same number of tasks, especially if scaling up to a larger number of nodes/cores. Additionally, my allocated memory is underutilized and I could be requesting a smaller memory allocation without inhibiting my runs.

Finally, while your job is still running you can log in the node(s) executing the job to look at live data. To do so, you simply ssh to one of the nodes listed under NODELIST (not all clusters allow this). From there, you can run the top command like below (with your own username), which will start the live task manager:

(base) [ah986@r143 ~]$ top -u ah986

top - 15:17:34 up 25 days, 19:55,  1 user,  load average: 0.09, 12.62, 40.64
Tasks: 1727 total,   2 running, 1725 sleeping,   0 stopped,   0 zombie
%Cpu(s):  0.3 us,  0.1 sy,  0.0 ni, 99.6 id,  0.0 wa,  0.0 hi,  0.0 si,  0.0 st
MiB Mem : 257662.9 total, 249783.4 free,   5561.6 used,   2317.9 buff/cache
MiB Swap: 716287.0 total, 716005.8 free,    281.2 used. 250321.1 avail Mem 

   PID USER      PR  NI    VIRT    RES    SHR S  %CPU  %MEM     TIME+ COMMAND                                                                                                                              
 78985 ah986     20   0  276212   7068   4320 R   0.3   0.0   0:00.62 top                                                                                                                                  
 78229 ah986     20   0  222624   3352   2936 S   0.0   0.0   0:00.00 slurm_script                                                                                                                         
 78467 ah986     20   0  259464   8128   4712 S   0.0   0.0   0:00.00 srun                                                                                                                                 
 78468 ah986     20   0   54520    836      0 S   0.0   0.0   0:00.00 srun                                                                                                                                 
 78481 ah986     20   0  266404  19112   4704 S   0.0   0.0   0:00.24 parallel                                                                                                                             
 78592 ah986     20   0  217052    792    720 S   0.0   0.0   0:00.00 sleep                                                                                                                                
 78593 ah986     20   0  217052    732    660 S   0.0   0.0   0:00.00 sleep                                                                                                                                
 78594 ah986     20   0  217052    764    692 S   0.0   0.0   0:00.00 sleep                                                                                                                                
 78595 ah986     20   0  217052    708    636 S   0.0   0.0   0:00.00 sleep                                                                                                                                
 78596 ah986     20   0  217052    708    636 S   0.0   0.0   0:00.00 sleep                                                                                                                                
 78597 ah986     20   0  217052    796    728 S   0.0   0.0   0:00.00 sleep                                                                                                                                
 78598 ah986     20   0  217052    732    660 S   0.0   0.0   0:00.00 sleep       

Memory and CPU usage can be tracked from RES and %CPU columns respectively. In this case, for the sake of an example, I just assigned all my cores to sleep a certain number of minutes each (using no CPU or memory). Similar information can also be obtained using the ps command, with memory being tracked under the RSS column.

 (base) [ah986@r143 ~]$ ps -u$USER -o %cpu,rss,args
%CPU   RSS COMMAND
 0.0  3352 /bin/bash /var/spool/slurm/d/job3509431/slurm_script
 0.0  8128 srun --export=all --exclusive -N1 -n1 parallel -j 100 sleep {}m ::: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45
 0.0   836 srun --export=all --exclusive -N1 -n1 parallel -j 100 sleep {}m ::: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45
 0.1 19112 /usr/bin/perl /usr/bin/parallel -j 100 sleep {}m ::: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
 0.0   792 sleep 3m
 0.0   732 sleep 4m
 0.0   764 sleep 5m
 0.0   708 sleep 6m
 0.0   708 sleep 7m
 0.0   796 sleep 8m
 0.0   732 sleep 9m
 0.0   712 sleep 10m

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