This is a short blogpost to demonstrate a the Paramiko Python package. Paramiko allows you to establish SSH, SCP or SFTP connections within Python scripts, which is handy when you’d like to automate some repetitive tasks with on remote server or cluster from your local machine or another cluster you’re running from.
It is often used for server management tasks, but for research applications you could consider situations where we have a large dataset stored at a remote location and are executing a script that needs to transfer some of that data depending on results or new information. Instead of manually establishing SSH or SFTP connections, those processes could be wrapped and automated within your existing Python script.
To begin a connection, all you need is a couple lines:
import paramiko ssh_client = paramiko.SSHClient() ssh_client.set_missing_host_key_policy(paramiko.AutoAddPolicy()) ssh_client.connect(hostname='remotehose',username='yourusername',password='yourpassword')
The first line creates a paramiko SSH client object. The second line tells paramiko what to do if the host is not a known host (i.e., whether this host should be trusted or not)—think of when you’re setting up an SSH connection for the first time and get the message:
The authenticity of host ‘name’ can’t be established. RSA key fingerprint is ‘gibberish’. Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)?
The third line is what makes the connection, the hostname, username and password are usually the only necessary things to define.
Once a connection is established, commands can be executed with
exec_command(), which creates three objects:
stdin, stdout, stderr = ssh_client.exec_command("ls")
stdin is write-only file which can be used for commands requiring input,
stdout contains the output of the command, and
stderr contains any errors produced by the command—if there are no errors it will be empty.
To print out what’s returned by the command, use can use
stdout.readlines(). To add inputs to
stdin, you can do so by using the
stdin, stdout, stderr = ssh.exec_command(“sudo ls”) stdin.write(‘password\n’)
Importantly: don’t forget to close your connection, especially if this is an automated script that opens many of them:
To transfer files, you need to establish an SFTP or an SCP connection, in a pretty much similar manner:
ftp_client=ssh_client.open_sftp() ftp_client.get('/remote/path/to/file/filename','/local/path/to/file/filename') ftp_client.close()
get() will transfer a file to a local directory,
put(), used in the same way, will transfer a file to a remote directory.