The Borg MOEA is written in C, but thanks to Dave, a Matlab wrapper is now available. This post will describe how to compile and use it on OSX (and, to a lesser extent, Linux); thanks to Joe, who figured all of this out. Windows users should refer to this post instead.
Step 0: Get Files
You will need the full source code (borg.c, borg.h, mt19937.c, mt19937.h) for the serial version of Borg, as well as three additional files: borg.m, DTLZ2.m,and nativeborg.cpp. Students in CEE 6200 will have received these files in a zip folder (be sure to grab the OSX folder rather than the Windows one).
Step 1: Compile shared library
The Windows version comes with pre-compiled shared libraries, but the OSX version does not. This is ok, because we need a compiler for the rest of the steps anyway. If you don’t already have it, go install XCode, which is Apple’s software development kit. We really only need the gcc compiler, but it won’t hurt to install the whole package.
After installing XCode, we need to compile Borg as a shared library. Open a terminal and navigate to the directory where you put your Borg files. Then, type the following commands:
gcc -c borg.c gcc -c mt19937ar.c gcc -shared -o libborg.so borg.o mt19937ar.o
The file libborg.so is the shared library that we’re looking for. Take this file and copy it to where your Matlab files are located (CEE 6200 students, it should already be in the right directory). Note if you’ve never used a terminal before, it’s just the application called “Terminal” on your Mac. Use the command cd /to/some/directory to change directory, and pwd to print working directory (that is, to see where you are).
Step 2: Check Compiler in Matlab
Matlab needs to compile Borg into a mex file to call its functions directly. The default compiler that it looks for on OSX is XCode—which, fortunately, we installed in the previous step. You can double-check that Matlab recognizes your compiler by running mex -setup at the Matlab command line. (Note: NOT in your system terminal). The mex -setup command should locate your XCode installation, with the gcc compiler.
Step 3: Compile Borg
In the Matlab command window, navigate to the directory where you stored all of the Borg files from Step 0. Run the command mex nativeborg.cpp libborg.so. If it works, you’ll see a new file called nativeborg.mex* in your directory. If it doesn’t work, double-check that you have all of the files copied into the same directory, and that Matlab’s working directory is set properly.
A few caveats. If you’re running OSX 10.9 (Mavericks), this will most likely need a small tweak to work—read troubleshooting step 3b below. Linux users will need to add a library path to the compilation like so:
mex LDFLAGS="\$LDFLAGS -Wl,-rpath,\." nativeborg.cpp libborg.so
Again: these commands are being run in Matlab’s command window, not the system terminal.
Step 3b: Compilation Troubleshooting
If you’re running Mavericks (OSX 10.9) and thus have XCode 5 or higher, you will most likely get this error:
xcodebuild: error: SDK macosx10.7 cannot be located
The SDK for OSX 10.7 is no longer included in XCode, but Matlab still searches for it by default. Try following these instructions from Mathworks to change the SDK that Matlab searches for from 10.7 to 10.8. As per the instructions, even if you’re running Mavericks you should still try 10.8, because it is likely better-supported by Matlab. Both the 10.8 and 10.9 SDKs should be included with the latest version of XCode.
Step 3c: Troubleshooting Continued
The compilers included in the latest version of XCode may have further compatibility issues with mex. Specifically, when you try to run mex, you may get a cryptic error message about undefined type char16_t. Following these instructions, you will need to add -std=C++11 to the CXXFLAGS variable in your options file (the same mexopts.sh file that you edited in Step 3b above).
This forces the compiler to abide by a certain standard, in which the undefined type is now (apparently) defined. I have confirmed that this fix works on OSX 10.9.2 with Matlab 2013a.
Step 4: Run a test problem
The file DTLZ2.m shows an example of how an objective function should be formatted for use with the Borg Matlab wrapper. It accepts a vector of decision variables as input, and outputs a vector of objectives (and optionally, constraints). From the command line, you can optimize this function as follows:
[vars, objs] = borg(11, 2, 0, @DTLZ2, 100000, zeros(1,11), ones(1,11), 0.01*ones(1,2));
The function returns the decision variables and objectives associated with non-dominated points (the Pareto-approximate set). The first three inputs to the function are: the number of decision variables, number of objectives, and number of constraints. After that comes the handle for your objective function, the number of function evaluations to run in the optimization, the lower and upper bounds of the decision variables, and finally, the epsilon precision values for the objectives.
To see the set of nondominated solutions, try scatter plotting the columns of the objs matrix:
And you should see a semicircular-looking Pareto front. Now all you need to do is swap out DTLZ2 with an objective function or model of your choice, and you’ll be ready to go!
Compile and run Borg MATLAB on JANUS
Some of the steps/information below are very similar to the information above; however, this is to clarify the exact steps necessary to compile and run Borg MATLAB on the CU Boulder supercomputer (JANUS).
Step 1: Transfer Borg source code to JANUS
Open your terminal and copy Borg source code from you computer to the appropriate folder on JANUS. Below is an example of a command you can use to copy these files. The *.c copies over all files ending in .c. If you only have one file of a specific type, you can also just use the filename.
scp /Users/elizabethhoule/Desktop/*.c email@example.com:/lustre/janus_scratch/elho9743/borg
Step 2: Compile shared library
Log onto JANUS, and navigate to the JANUS directory that contains the Borg source code. For example:
ssh firstname.lastname@example.org cd /lustre/janus_scratch/elho9743/borg
Use the following code to compile Borg as a shared library. This should produce a file called libborg.so.
gcc -c -fPIC borg.c gcc -c -fPIC mt19937ar.c gcc -shared -o libborg.so borg.o mt19937ar.o
Check your folder via the ls command to ensure libborg.so now exists. Then copy libborg.so to your JANUS directory that contains your MATLAB code. For example:
cp /lustre/janus_scratch/elho9743/borg/libborg.so /lustre/janus_scratch/elho9743/matlabfiles/
Also ensure that your nativeborg.cpp and borg.m files are in this same directory. Navigate to the directory that now contains your MATLAB code and libborg.so.
Step 3: Compile Borg
Use the following commands to compile Borg on JANUS.
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:. module load matlab/matlab-2013a matlab
mex nativeborg.cpp libborg.so
The first command, LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:., tells MATLAB where the .so is located. Even after you compile Borg, if you close out of your terminal, you will need to type the first command again in your new terminal before Borg will run. When you type this command ensure you are in your JANUS directory that contains the MATLAB files.
The second command, module load matlab/matlab-2013a, loads MATLAB on JANUS. The third command, matlab, opens MATLAB on JANUS in your terminal. The fourth command, mex nativeborg.cpp libborg.so, compiles Borg in MATLAB on JANUS.
Lastly, you can run a test problem to make sure Borg is properly compiled. Make sure all of the necessary files are in the directory in which you are running the test problem. Use the following command to run the test problem:
[vars, objs] = borg(11, 2, 0, @DTLZ2, 10000, [0.01,0.01], zeros(1,11), ones(1,11));
If this works, you are good to go. Navigate out of MATLAB on JANUS and load slurm to start running your Borg jobs.