9 basic skills for editing and creating vector graphics in Illustrator

This post intends to provide guidance for editing and creating vector graphics using Adobe Illustrator.     The goal is to learn some of the commonly used features to help you get started with your vectorized journey.  Let it be a conceptual diagram, or a logos or cropping people out of your photo, these 9 features (and a fair amount googling) will help you do the job.   Before we begin, it may be worthwhile to distinguish some of the main differences between a raster and a vector graphic.  A raster image is comprised of a collection of squares or pixels, and vector graphics are  based on mathematical formulas that define geometric forms (i.e.  polygons, lines, curves, circles and rectangles), which makes them independent of resolution.

The three main advantages of using vector graphics over raster images are illustrated below:

1. Scalability: Vector graphics scale infinitely without losing any image quality. Raster images guess the colors of missing pixels when sizing up, whereas vector graphics simply use the original mathematical equation to create a consistent shape every time.

scalability-01.png

2. Edibility: Vector files are not flattened, that is, the original shapes of an image exist separately on different layers; this provides flexibility on modifying different elements without impacting the entire image.

edibility.png

3. Reduced file size: A vector file only requires four data points to recreate a square ,whereas a raster image needs to store many small squares.

reduced_file_size.png

 

9 key things to know when getting started with Adobe Illustrator:

1. Starting a project

You can start a new project simply by clicking File> New, and the following window will appear.  You can provide a number of specifications for your document before starting, but you can also customize your document at any stage by clicking File> Document setup (shortcut Alt+Ctrl+P).

pic1.PNG

2. Creating basic shapes

Lines & Arrows

Simply use the line segment tool ( A ) and remember to press the shift button to create perfectly straight lines.  Arrows can be added by using the stroke window (Window> Stroke) and (B) will appear, there’s a variety of arrow styles that you can select from and scale (C).  Finally,  in the line segment tool you can provide the exact length of your line.

Slide1.PNG

Polygons 

Some shapes are already specified in Illustrator (e.g. rectangles , stars and circles (A), but many others such as triangles, need to be specified through the polygon tool.  To draw a triangle I need to specify the number of sides =3 as shown in  (B).

Slide1.PNGCurvatures 

To generate curvatures, you can use the pen tool (A).  Specify two points with the pen, hold the click in the second point and a handle will appear, this handle allows you to shape the curve.  If you want to add more curvatures, draw another point (B) and drag the handle in the opposite direction of the curve.  You can then select the color (C) and the width (D) of your wave.

Slide1.PNG

3. Matching colors

If you need to match the color of an image (A) there are a couple of alternatives:

i) Using the “Eyedrop” tool ( B).  Select the component of the image that you want to match, then select the Eyedrop tool and click on the desired color (C).

Slide1.PNG

ii) Using the color picker panel.  Select the image component with the desired color, then double click on the color picker (highlighted in red) and the following panel should appear.  You can see the exact color code and you can copy and paste it on the image that you wish to edit.

Slide1.PNG

4. Extracting exact position and dimensions

In the following example, I want the windows of my house to be perfectly aligned.  First, in (A), I click on one of the windows of my house and the control panel automatically provides its x and y coordinates, as well its width and height.  Since I want to align both of the windows horizontally, I investigate the  Y coordinates  of the first window and copy it onto the y coordinate of he second window as shown in (B).  The same procedure would apply if you want to copy the dimensions from one figure to another.

twohouses.png

5. Free-style drawing and editing 

The pencil tool (A) is one of my favorite tools in Illustrator, since it corrects my shaky strokes, and allows me to  paint free style.  Once I added color and filled the blob that I drew, it started resembling more like a tree top (B).  You can edit your figure by right clicking it.  A menu will appear enabling you to rotate, reflect, shear and  scale, among other options.  I only wanted to tilt my tree so I specify a mild rotation  (C).

Slide1.PNG

Slide1.PNG

6. Cropping:

Cropping in Illustrator requires clipping masks and I will show a couple of examples using  Bone Bone, a fluffy celebrity cat.  Once a .png image is imported into illustrator, it can be cropped using  one of the following three methods:

Method 1.  Using the direct selection tool

Slide1.PNG

Method 2. Using shapesSlide2.PNG

Method 3. Using the pen tool for a more detailed cropSlide3.PNG

To reverse  to the original image Select Object> Clipping mask> Release or Alt+Ctrl+7

7. Customize the art-board size

If you want your image to be saved without extra white space (B), you can adapt the size of the canvas with  the Art-board tool (or Shft+8) ( A).  Slide1.PNG

8. Using layers:

Layers can help you organize artwork, specially when working with multiple components in an image.  If the Layers panel is not already in your tools, you can access it through Window>  Layers or through the F7 shortcut.  A panel like the  one below should appear.   You can name the layers by double clicking on them, so you can give them a descriptive name.  Note that you can toggle the visibility of each layer on or off. You can also lock a layer if you want to protect it from further change, like the house layer in the example below.  Note that each layer is color-coded, my current working layer is coded in red, so when I select an element in that layer it will be highlighted in red.  The layers can also have sub-layers to store individual shapes, like in the house layer, which is comprised of a collection of rectangles and a triangle.

layer.png

closelayer.png

9.  Saving vector and exporting raster

Adobe Illustrator, naturally allows you to save images in many vector formats, But you can also export raster images such as .png, .jpeg, .bmp, etc.. To export raster images do File> Export and something like the blurry panel below should show up.  You can specify the  resolution and the color of the background. I usually like a transparent background  since it allows you more flexibility when using your image in programs such as Power Point.

background.png

There are many more features available in Illustrator, but this are the ones that I find myself using quite often.  Also, you probably won’t have to generate images from scratch, there are many available resources online. You can download svg images for free which you an later customize in Illustrator.  You can also complement this post by reading Jon Herman’s Scientific figures in Illustrator.

Scientific figures in Illustrator

Once you have a figure sequence almost ready to publish in a journal, it’s time to make your figures look good. This may sound like a vain exercise, but if you consider that the journal article will be around for a long time, it’s worth it. Publication-quality scientific figures are typically in vector format (SVG, PDF, or EPS files) rather than raster format (JPEG, PNG, TIFF, and others) which may become pixelated if resized. You can read this discussion of raster vs. vector formats if you’re interested, or just take my word for it that vector is what you want.

Programs capable of editing vector graphics include Adobe Illustrator (paid) and Inkscape (free). This post will be about Illustrator, but keep in mind that Inkscape offers much of the same functionality. You can not edit vector images with photo editing programs like Photoshop or GIMP, nor can you make publishable vector images with MS Office programs like Excel or Powerpoint. This post will take a figure created in Matlab and clean it up into something that will look nice in a publication using Illustrator.

If you run the following Matlab code …

x = 0:0.1:5;

y(1,:) = exp(-1*x);
y(2,:) = exp(-0.5*x);
y(3,:) = exp(-1.5*x);

h = plot(x,y);
legend(h, {'Thing 1', 'Thing 2', 'Thing 3'});
grid on;
xlabel('Time (hours)');
ylabel('Amount of thing');
title('My plot title');

… it will give you this figure:

default matlab figure style

Default figure style. Bleh.

You’ve seen this before: the text is too small, the grid lines are noisy, the colors are uninspiring, the plot lines are too thin … and so on. Some of those issues you can fix from inside Matlab, which is a good idea if you plan to regenerate your plot several times. (An example of doing this is available here in the Matlab Plot Gallery). But here we’re going to do all the work in Illustrator instead (which as you may have gathered is not a very “repeatable” process, so only do it once you agree with coauthors on the general layout of the figure). If you’re following along at home, save your Matlab figure in .eps format. Unfortunately Matlab does not have an option to save in SVG format as of this post, which is typically the option of choice in Python or R.

Go find the .eps figure you just created, and open it with Illustrator. If your file extensions aren’t associated with Illustrator, you may need to right-click and select Open With / Adobe Illustrator. When opening the file, you may see some warnings about missing fonts, just click OK and proceed. Note that we are not “inserting” the file into an existing Illustrator document—we are opening the file itself. You should be greeted by our lovely figure, inside of what may be an overwhelming interface the first time you see it. Let’s break down the toolbar on the left-hand side to start with, and we’ll cover other options as we go.

Illustrator left toolbar

These annotations were professionally done.

This is only the top of the toolbar, but you’ll be using these “tools” (cursor types) probably 95% of the time. The select cursor is the default, and when in doubt you should return to it. The text, line, and shape options are for adding new things to your drawing, which is not so different from, say, Powerpoint. Stay on “Select” for now. Let’s get cleaning.

Step 0: Ungroup the main parts of the figure

When Matlab exports EPS files, it tends to group different parts of the figure together. This can be somewhat unpredictable and makes editing difficult. You’ll notice if you left-click any part of the figure, it will select everything. So, one of the first things you’ll want to do when editing almost any figure is to “ungroup”, which you can do by right-clicking any part of the figure and selecting the ungroup option:

Illustrator ungrouping

How to ungroup the elements of the figure (everything is grouped by default).

Now you should be able to select individual parts of the figure. Matlab may have saved a big white rectangle in the background of your figure (you can see it selected around the border of the above image), which you should feel free to delete. Illustrator’s white “Artboard” will serve as our background, and you can edit the artboard size by pressing Shift+O.

Step 1: Replace all text

This may sound harsh, but hear me out. What we really want to do is just resize the text, or maybe change the font type, nothing major. But what usually happens here is that the EPS file splits text objects into separate boxes, especially when a decimal point is involved. Which means if you resize, you get the following:

Illustrator text resize

The text elements are split into two, so resizing won’t work. Need to start from scratch.

This is not an indictment of Matlab specifically—in fact, when Matplotlib (Python) exports SVGs, it usually saves text as vector paths, which aren’t fonts at all! Rather than trying to repair this strangeness, just replace all of the text yourself. Choose a clean sans-serif font, unless you want to use Computer Modern serif for equations. I like Gill Sans for figures (Gill Sans MT on Windows), but your mileage may vary. My rule of thumb for text sizing is: Title > Axis labels = Legend > Tick labels, something like this:

Illustrator fonts text sizes

Same figure with fonts and text sizes fixed.

That’s already so much better, just by improving the text readability. It looks like we actually spent some time on it, instead of just copypasting the raw Matlab output. You can insert text using the text cursor (shown on the toolbar figure above), and edit its properties from the Window/Type/Character window, pictured below, which you’ll usually want to keep visible.

Illustrator character window

The Type/Character window is where you change font types, sizes, and tracking.

A quick digression: the other window you’ll usually want to keep open is the Align window, which looks like this:

Illustrator align window

The align window is a must for lining up multiple elements. Don’t try to do it by hand.

Those little button symbols are actually pretty intuitive. If you select two or more objects, then press one of these “alignment” buttons, it will either left-, center-, or right-align them horizontally (the left three buttons) or vertically (the right three buttons). This comes in handy when you’re trying to line up tick labels that you’ve edited manually, or combining multiple EPS files as subplots in a larger figure file and you want to make sure they’re aligned properly. Even if you don’t learn how to do this right now, just remember that alignment shouldn’t be done manually.

Ok, digression over. When resizing text, pay particular attention to the aspect ratio (the width:height ratio of the object). Never ever resize these out of proportion. Either use the text size in the character window, shown above (recommended), or Shift+Drag when you resize, which will preserve the aspect ratio.

Don't change the aspect ratio

If you take one thing away from this post …

Step 2: Make grid lines solid and lighter

Right now, the grid lines are noisy and distracting—let’s clean them up. Fortunately the grid lines should all be grouped together, so we don’t need to do any fancy selection to get them all selected at the same time. Just left-click on any one of the grid lines and you should see them all highlighted. Then, on the right-hand toolbar, go to the “Stroke” options and deselect the “Dashed Line” checkbox:

Illustrator line weight

Changing line weight in Illustrator.

(I’m not doing the snapshots in parallel with the actual saved figure versions, so the font formatting isn’t shown in this snapshot). This should turn the grid lines into solid lines. But wait, they’re solid black! This is even more distracting than before! Have no fear, just go to the “Color” options on the right-hand toolbar and knock it down to maybe 30% gray or so:

Illustrator stroke color

Changing stroke color in Illustrator.

While we’re at it, let’s also bump up the thickness of the plot lines. To select the plot lines, you will need to Ctrl+click, since they are grouped (somehow, bizarrely) with the plot itself. You can Ctrl+Shift+click to select the other lines after that, so that you have all three selected at once. Then go back to the “Stroke” options on the right-hand toolbar (pictured in one of the above images) and increase the line weight to 2px. You should now have a figure that looks something like this:

Example plot after some improvements

We’re getting there … thicker lines, thinner grid, and nicer fonts. Only a few steps to go.

This is already a terrific improvement over the original version. I would be fine with publishing it at this point. But, there are a few other things we can do to make it even better.

Step 3: Care about Colors

As we saw in the very first image, Matlab’s default colors are red, green, and blue. This is fine, but you’ll find if you move beyond the defaults, people appreciate the extra effort. Illustrator makes the colors a little less grating when it imports the EPS file, because it converts them to CMYK format and does some magic behind the scenes that I don’t fully understand. But let’s imagine the case where the three lines represent something changing along a continuum (which they are—the exponential decay coefficient, to be exact). In this case, we might want their colors to also lie along a continuous spectrum.

I know of no better place to find discrete color palettes than Colorbrewer (http://colorbrewer2.org/). I am certainly not the first person to sing its praises, so you can go read about it elsewhere. Basically you choose whether your data are “Sequential”, “Diverging”, or “Qualitative”, give it the number of colors you want, and it generates a well-spaced set of colors for you to use. The case I just described would fall into the “Sequential” category, so let’s grab a set of 3 colors (for our three lines) from the single hue blues:

Colorbrewer palettes

Colorbrewer: if you’re not using it, you should be.

You can see in the bottom-right the RGB values for these three colors. You can change this to CMYK or HEX format if you prefer, but I’ll stick to RGBs in this example. Note if I were more responsible, I would have configured the colors of these lines in the Matlab script, so I could regenerate the figure as many times as I needed to. Oh well, we’re doing it in Illustrator now.

We want to change the color of each line, along with its legend entry, to correspond to the three colors that Colorbrewer gave us above. To do this quicker, we’ll use a neat selection trick. First Ctrl+click to select one of the lines. Then go to the menu option Select / Same / Stroke Color to add the line’s legend entry to your selection (see below). Now you can change the color of both of them at the same time!

Illustrator select same stroke color.

Illustrator has an option to select all other elements in the figure that have the same (appearance). In this case we want the same stroke color.

How do we set their color, you ask? Go back to the “Color” options on the right-hand toolbar. The color format might be set to something other than RGB, like CMYK. To change it to RGB, click the small options box in the upper-right corner and select “RGB”:

Illustrator RGB color format

Change the color format to RGB.

Then enter the RGB values from Colorbrewer. Repeat for the other two plot lines, and you’ll end up with something like this:

Illustrator color palette

Same figure as before, but with a “sequential” color palette. Useful if the lines represent some variable changing along a continuum.

Step 4: “Flat” Legend and Outer Box

At this point, I only have a few remaining grievances about this figure. First, the legend is too small. Second, there is a ton of whitespace in the upper right of the figure that is being wasted. Third, the solid black borders around the legend box, and around the plot itself, are distracting attention from the plot lines (which should be the focus, after all). Let’s see what we can do about this.

Select the legend and its components. Since we ungrouped everything at the beginning of this exercise, this will be annoying. Remember you can Shift+Click to select multiple elements at once. To make it easier to edit the legend, just move it outside the plot area for now. (Once you’re more experienced with Illustrator you can use layers to more easily edit “stuff” that’s sitting on top of other “stuff”).

To make the legend bigger (proportionally), it’s fine to select everything and Shift+Drag one of the corners of the bounding box. This will rescale the text proportionally as well. Make sure after you do this that the line thickness in the legend matches the thickness of the plot lines themselves (an important technicality), using the “Stroke” options in the right-hand toolbar.

Things get a bit confusing here because there may actually be two rectangles behind our legend—one defining the black border, and one defining the white background. If this seems to be the case in your figure (it is in mine), delete the black border completely, and then select the white background. Go to the “Color” options on the right-hand toolbar and change from white to a very light gray, maybe around 5% or so:

Illustrator change rectangle fill color

Changing the fill color of a rectangle.

See those two squares in the top-left of the Color options box? Those are the fill and stroke, respectively. You can toggle back and forth between the two by clicking them. The icon with the red line through it means there is “no fill” (or “no stroke”, respectively). The options for “none”, “black”, and “white” are always visible at the bottom because these are so common. Otherwise, you choose your own color. If you wanted something besides grayscale here, you could change the color format like we did before.

Take your enlarged legend and move it back inside the plot box. Here’s mine:

Illustrator flat legend

The “flat” legend at work. It solves our whitespace problem and is also nicer to look at.

Some may call it a fad, but I absolutely love these “flat” legends. Borders around legends are distracting, whereas a borderless light rectangle looks so clean. It can sit on top of the plot grid lines with no problem at all. And, by including the title inside the legend box, we’ve saved a bunch of whitespace at the top of the figure, too. I also rearranged the legend entries to go in the same vertical order as the plot lines—not required, but I think it makes sense here, especially if you pretend they’re called something besides “Thing 2”.

As a final step in our crusade against dark borders, let’s change the outer box to the same line style as the grid lines. For the record, I’m not completely sure I like the outcome of this, but it’s at least worth discussing. Select one of the black tick marks with Ctrl+Click (they are grouped with something else) and then use the Select / Same / Stroke Color to select all of the remaining black lines in the plot. See if you can remember how to change their line width to 0.333px (matching the grid lines), and their color to grayscale 30%. You should end up with something like this:

Example plot after fixing everything

The final result! Send it off to Nature and take a well-deserved break.

The border of the plot doesn’t announce itself anymore, but I consider this a good thing. The focus of the plot should be on the values being plotted, not on the box and grid lines. As I said before, this may be overkill, but now this seems like a polished, easily interpretable figure that I would be happy to see in a journal.

By the way, if you save your figure as a PDF and want to include it in a LaTeX document, it’s easy:

begin{figure}begin{center}
includegraphics[width=1.0columnwidth]{my-figure-filename.pdf}
caption{My Caption.}
end{center}end{figure}

That’s all for this tutorial. Go back and look at the original plot at the top of this post, and then at the final product we just made—what a difference! Don’t despair if it takes you a while to do this, because eventually you’ll learn where all of the options are and you’ll get much faster. Vector graphics are definitely worth learning, partly for clear scientific communication, but also because they just plain look nice.