Networks on maps: exploring spatial connections using NetworkX and Basemap

This blogpost is about generating network graphs interlaid on spatial maps. I’ll be using the data provided by this paper (in the supplementary material) which estimates flows of food across US counties. All the code I’m using here can be found here.

The dataset included in erl_14_8_084011_sd_3.csv of the supplementary material lists the tons of food transported per food category, using the standard classification of transported goods (SCTG) food categories included in the study. The last two columns, ori and des, indicate the origin and destination counties of each flow, using FIPS codes.

To draw the network nodes (the counties) in their geographic locations I had to identify lat and lon coordinates for each county using its FIPS code, which can be found here 1.

Now, let’s these connections in Python, using NetworkX and Basemap. The entire script is here, I’ll just be showing the important snippets below. In the paper, they limit the visualization to the largest 5% of food flows, which I can confirm is necessary otherwise the figure would be unreadable. We first load the data using pandas (or other package that reads csv files), identify the 95th percentile and restrict the data to only those 5% largest flows.

data = pd.read_csv('erl_14_8_084011_sd_3.csv')
threshold = np.percentile(data['total'], 95)
data = data.loc[(data['total'] > threshold)]

Using NetworkX, we can directly create a network out of these data. The most important things I need to define are the dataframe column that lists my source nodes, the column that lists my destination nodes and which attribute makes up my network edges (the connections between nodes), in this case the total food flows.

G = nx.from_pandas_edgelist(df=data, source='ori', target='des', edge_attr='total',create_using = nx.DiGraph())

Drawing this network without the spatial information attached (using the standard nx.draw(G)) looks something like below, which does hold some information about the structure of this network, but misses the spatial information we know to be associated with those nodes (counties).

To associate the spatial information with those nodes, we’ll employ Basemap to create a map and use its projection to convert the lat and lon values of each county to x and y positions for our matplotlib figure. When those positions are estimated and stored in the pos dictionary, I then draw the network using the specific positions. I finally also draw country and state lines. You’ll notice that I didn’t draw the entire network but only the edges (nx.draw_networkx_edges) in an effort to replicate the style of the figure from the original paper and to declutter the figure.

plt.figure(figsize = (12,8))
m = Basemap(projection='merc',llcrnrlon=-160,llcrnrlat=15,urcrnrlon=-60,
urcrnrlat=50, lat_ts=0, resolution='l',suppress_ticks=True)
mx, my = m(pos_data['lon'].values, pos_data['lat'].values)
pos = {}
for count, elem in enumerate(pos_data['nodes']):
     pos[elem] = (mx[count], my[count])
nx.draw_networkx_edges(G, pos = pos, edge_color='blue', alpha=0.1, arrows = False)
m.drawcountries(linewidth = 2)
m.drawstates(linewidth = 0.2)
plt.savefig("map.png", dpi = 300)

The resulting figure is the following, corresponding to Fig. 5B from the original paper.

I was also interested in replicating some of the analysis done in the paper, using NetworkX, to identify the counties most critical to the structure of the food flow network. Using the entire network now (not just the top 5% of flows) we can use NetworkX functions to calculate each node’s degree and between-ness centrality. The degree indicates the number of nodes a node is connected to, between-ness centrality is an indicator of the fraction of shortest paths between two nodes that pass through a specific node. These are network metrics that are unrelated to the physical distance between two counties and can be used (along with several other metrics) to make inferences about the importance and the position of a specific node in a network. We can calculate them in NetworkX as shown below and plot them using simple pyplot commands:

connectivity = list(
connectivity_values = [n[1] for n in connectivity]
centrality = nx.betweenness_centrality(G).values()

plt.figure(figsize = (12,8))
plt.plot(centrality, connectivity_values,'ro')
plt.xlabel('Node centrality', fontsize='large')
plt.ylabel('Node connectivity', fontsize='large')
plt.savefig("node_connectivity.png", dpi = 300)

The resulting figure is shown below, matching the equivalent Fig. 6 of the original paper. As the authors point out, there are some counties in this network, those with high connectivity and high centrality, that are most critical to its structure: San Berndardino, CA; Riverside, CA; Los Angeles, CA; Shelby, TN; San Joaquin, CA; Maricopa, AZ; San Diego, CA; Harris, TX; and Fresno, CA.

1 – If you are interested in how this is done, I used the National Counties Gazetteer file from the US Census Bureau and looked up each code to get its lat and lon.

4 thoughts on “Networks on maps: exploring spatial connections using NetworkX and Basemap

  1. Pingback: Basic network analysis on a directed network using NetworkX – Water Programming: A Collaborative Research Blog

  2. Pingback: Basic network analysis on a directed network using NetworkX – Hydrogen Water

  3. Pingback: Visualizing large directed networks with ggraph in R – Water Programming: A Collaborative Research Blog

  4. Pingback: Visualizing large directed networks with ggraph in R – Hydrogen Water

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