Using Borg in Parallel and Serial with a Python Wrapper – Part 1

Simulation and optimization are frequently used to solve complex water resources and environmental systems problems. By itself, a simulation model begs the question “what to simulate?” Similarly, by itself, an optimization model begs the question “is the solution really best?” For this reason, simulation and optimization models are frequently coupled.

This blog post is part 1 of a multi-part series that will demonstrate how I have coupled a pure Python simulation model with the multi-objective evolutionary optimization algorithm Borg. In this post, I will show how you can access Borg’s serial and/or parallelized (master-slave) implementations through a Python wrapper (

Please see this previous blog post for some background about Borg, and how to obtain it. My instructions below assume you have access to the Borg files.

In the setup I will describe below, Borg parameterizes and iteratively refines solutions (e.g., reservoir operating policies) to a problem, optimizing them in response to their simulated performance with respect to multiple objectives.

You will need the following Borg files (see link above for how to download these):

  • Serial (i.e., borg.c,, etc.) and/or master-slave (i.e., borgms.c,, etc.) implementations of Borg, depending upon your ability to parallelize.
  • Python wrapper for Borg (, which will allow you to to access Borg easily in Python.

You will need to create the following files yourself (I provide sample code below for these files):

  •—A python module that should contain two main functions:
    1. A simulation caller, which takes decision variables and returns multi-objective performance. This function is called “Simulation_Caller” in the code below.
    2. An optimization function, which calls the Borg MOEA through its python wrapper This wrapper provides extensive docstring documentation regarding required arguments, returned values, etc., so I do suggest reading through the wrapper if you have questions (e.g., about the python data types of arguments and returns).

Note that the file and function names above are just example names. You can name the above files whatever you want. Just be sure to modify the code I provide below to reflect the new names.

A sample of code for is as follows:

import numpy as np
import pysedsim # This is your simulation model
import platform  # helps identify directory locations on different types of OS

def Simulation_Caller(vars):
    Purpose: Borg calls this function to run the simulation model and return multi-objective performance.

    Note: You could also just put your simulation/function evaluation code here.

        vars: A list of decision variable values from Borg

        performance: policy's simulated objective values. A list of objective values, one value each of the objectives.

    borg_vars = vars  # Decision variable values from Borg

    # Reformat decision variable values as necessary (.e.g., cast borg output parameters as array for use in simulation)
    op_policy_params = np.asarray(borg_vars)
    # Call/run simulation model, return multi-objective performance:
    performance = pysedsim.PySedSim(decision_vars = op_policy_params)
    return performance

def Optimization():


    Purpose: Call this method from command line to initiate simulation-optimization experiment

        --pareto approximate set file (.set) for each random seed
        --Borg runtime file (.runtime) for each random seed


    import borg as bg  # Import borg wrapper

    parallel = 1  # 1= master-slave (parallel), 0=serial

    # The following are just examples of relevant MOEA specifications. Select your own values.
    nSeeds = 25  # Number of random seeds (Borg MOEA)
    num_dec_vars = 10  # Number of decision variables
    n_objs = 6  # Number of objectives
    n_constrs = 0  # Number of constraints
    num_func_evals = 30000  # Number of total simulations to run per random seed. Each simulation may be a monte carlo.
    runtime_freq = 1000  # Interval at which to print runtime details for each random seed
    decision_var_range = [[0, 1], [4, 6], [-1,4], [1,2], [0,1], [0,1], [0,1], [0,1], [0,1], [0,1]]
    epsilon_list = [50000, 1000, 0.025, 10, 13, 4]  # Borg epsilon values for each objective

    # Where to save seed and runtime files
    main_output_file_dir = 'E:\output_directory'  # Specify location of output files for different seeds
    os_fold = Op_Sys_Folder_Operator()  # Folder operator for operating system
    output_location = main_output_file_dir + os_fold + 'sets'

    # If using master-slave, start MPI. Only do once.
    if parallel == 1:
        bg.Configuration.startMPI()  # start parallelization with MPI

    # Loop through seeds, calling borg.solve (serial) or borg.solveMPI (parallel) each time
    for j in range(nSeeds):
        # Instantiate borg class, then set bounds, epsilon values, and file output locations
        borg = bg.Borg(num_dec_vars, n_objs, n_constrs, Simulation_Caller)
        borg.setBounds(*decision_var_range)  # Set decision variable bounds
        borg.setEpsilons(*epsilon_list)  # Set epsilon values
        # Runtime file path for each seed:
        runtime_filename = main_output_file_dir + os_fold + 'runtime_file_seed_' + str(j+1) + '.runtime'
        if parallel == 1:
            # Run parallel Borg
            result = borg.solveMPI(maxEvaluations='num_func_evals', runtime=runtime_filename, frequency=runtime_freq)

        if parallel == 0:
            # Run serial Borg
            result = borg.solve({"maxEvaluations": num_func_evals, "runtimeformat": 'borg', "frequency": runtime_freq,
                                 "runtimefile": runtime_filename})

        if result:
            # This particular seed is now finished being run in parallel. The result will only be returned from
            # one node in case running Master-Slave Borg.

            # Create/write objective values and decision variable values to files in folder "sets", 1 file per seed.
            f = open(output_location + os_fold + 'Borg_DPS_PySedSim' + str(j+1) + '.set', 'w')
            f.write('#Borg Optimization Results\n')
            f.write('#First ' + str(num_dec_vars) + ' are the decision variables, ' + 'last ' + str(n_objs) +
                    ' are the ' + 'objective values\n')
            for solution in result:
                line = ''
                for i in range(len(solution.getVariables())):
                    line = line + (str(solution.getVariables()[i])) + ' '

                for i in range(len(solution.getObjectives())):
                    line = line + (str(solution.getObjectives()[i])) + ' '


            # Create/write only objective values to files in folder "sets", 1 file per seed. Purpose is so that
            # the file can be processed in MOEAFramework, where performance metrics may be evaluated across seeds.
            f2 = open(output_location + os_fold + 'Borg_DPS_PySedSim_no_vars' + str(j+1) + '.set', 'w')
            for solution in result:
                line = ''
                for i in range(len(solution.getObjectives())):
                    line = line + (str(solution.getObjectives()[i])) + ' '


            print("Seed %s complete") %j

    if parallel == 1:
        bg.Configuration.stopMPI()  # stop parallel function evaluation process

def Op_Sys_Folder_Operator():
    Function to determine whether operating system is (1) Windows, or (2) Linux

    Returns folder operator for use in specifying directories (file locations) for reading/writing data pre- and

    if platform.system() == 'Windows':
        os_fold_op = '\\'
    elif platform.system() == 'Linux':
        os_fold_op = '/'
        os_fold_op = '/'  # Assume unix OS if it can't be identified

    return os_fold_op

The following is an example of how you would submit a batch script on a Linux cluster to run a parallelized simulation-optimization experiment using the and files. Note that in the parallelized version, simulations (i.e., “function evaluations”) are being run in parallel by separate processors.

You would need the following two files:

  1. This is a python file that is used to call
  2. example_sim_opt_batch_script.pbs. This is batch script that runs in parallel on a cluster using open MPI.

Example code for

Purpose: To initiate the optimization process, which will iteratively call the simulation model.

import example_sim_opt  # Import main optimization module that uses borg python wrapper

# Module within example

Example code for example_sim_opt_batch_script.pbs:

#PBS -l nodes=8:ppn=16
#PBS -l walltime=24:00:00
#PBS -j oe
#PBS -o pysedsim_output.out

source /etc/profile.d/
module load openmpi-1.6.5-intel-x86_64/gnu
module load python-2.7.5
mpirun python

You could then run the above batch script with a command such as:

qsub example_sim_opt_batch_script.pbs

4 thoughts on “Using Borg in Parallel and Serial with a Python Wrapper – Part 1

  1. Pingback: Using Borg in Parallel and Serial with a Python Wrapper – Part 2 – Water Programming: A Collaborative Research Blog

  2. Pingback: Water Programming Blog Guide (Part I) – Water Programming: A Collaborative Research Blog

  3. Hi,

    I need BORG MO optimization packages (Python).
    I have filled form online too.

    Please send me the package. I am very grateful to you.


  4. Hi,
    Thanks for the blog.
    I tried to use the python wrapper to run a python model I have. I was following your instructions and I was able to run a serial job in my windows Laptop. However, when I moved all to a cluster to do the hard work :metal: I have problems finding the `` file. I got the next errors

    OSError: ./ cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory
    OSError: Unable to locate the parallel Borg MOEA C library
    AttributeError: ./ undefined symbol: BORG_Problem_create

    Do you know how can I solve these problems? I put borgms.c, file in the same folder as

    Beforehand thank for your help.


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